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The proper capitalization of a company – created through newly-sourced and redeployed capital – can allow for equity risk diversification, improved cash flow, and accelerated growth, if desired. A properly designed capital structure will eliminate or lessen personal guarantees and associated risks. It will improve cash flow through the elimination of high-cost debt, excessive debt-service requirements and/or onerous prepayment penalties. It will provide capital for and lessen restrictions on capital expenditures and growth. It will lessen or remove financial and operating covenants and restrictions. And finally, it will reduce the number of capital providers with a “say” in corporate matters.


Capital Structure Optimization

Investing and capital budgeting includes planning where to place the company`s long-term capital assets in order to generate the hights risk-adjusted returns. This mainly consists of deciding whether or not to pursue an investment opportunity, and is aacomplished through extensive financial analysis .


Capital Budgeting

This core activity includes decisions on how to optimally finance the capital investments ( discussed above) through the business` equity, debt, or a mix of both. Long-term funding for major capital expenditures or investments may be obtained from selling company stocks or issuing debt securities in the market through investment banks.

Balancing the two sources of funding (equity and debt) should be closely managed because having too much debt may increase the risk if default in repayment, while depending too heavily on equity may dilute earnings and value for original investors.



This activity required corporate managers to decide whether to retain a business`s excess earnings for future investments and operational requirements or to distribute the earnings to shareholders in the form of dividends or share buybacks. Retained earnings that are not distributed back to shareholders may be used to fund and business` expansion. This can often be the best source of funds, as it does not include additional debts not dilute the value of equity by issuing more shares.


Return of Capital